Hydrobromic Acid Formula, Structure and Uses

The hydrobromic acid molecule contains a total of 2 atom(s). There are 1 H atom(s) and 1 Br atom(s). Yes. Therefore, we can write the chemical formula of hydrobromic acid as: BrH.

The chemical formula of HBr acid shown above is based on the molecular formula. Yes. It indicates the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule without structural information. Yes. It is different from the practical formula which provides the numerical amounts of atoms of each type.

However, the above chemical formula is the basis of stoichiometry in chemical equations. It is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Yes. However, the law of conservation of mass rules that the quantity of each element given in the chemical formula does not change in a chemical reaction. Yes. Thus, each side of the chemical equation must represent the same quantity of any particular element based on the chemical formula.

Hydrobromic Acid

HBr acid is a powerful acid. We can make it by dissolving bromide and hydrogen. It is a diatomic molecule. Yes. It is also a colorless, suffocating gas, very soluble in water and highly dissociated in aqueous solution. Yes. HBr readily fumes in the presence of moist air. HBr gas is a highly corrosive substance that can cause severe burns upon contact.

We mentioned the HBr acid formula in this article. Yes. It is a diatomic molecule that subsists of a single covalent bond between the H and Br atoms. Yes. It is a very strong acid. Yes. We can easily ionize the covalent bond because of the high electronegativity of the Br atom. Therefore it is more capable than Hcl.

Table of Contents

Hydrobromic acid Structure

It appears as a colourless gas in its anhydrous state, and its vapours have a harsh, irritating odour. Yes. In this state, it is colourless. It comes in aqueous form as a colourless to pale yellow liquid with an unpleasant odour. Yes. It is a powerful mineral acid that is corrosive. Yes. We can make it by softening HBr, a diatomic molecule, in water.

Hydrogen (H) possesses qualities that distinguish it from other elements on our planet. Yes. This one-of-a-kind component accounted for 66% of the mass of our Universe. It has both electropositive and electronegative properties.

That’s why it can organise both hydrogen (H+) and hydride (H–) particles. Yes. Some man made this using hydrogen molecules. Yes. They have links with a variety of substance families’ tendencies. Ammonia is made from hydrogen (NH3). Yes. Bromine’s compound name is Br, and it’s an important element in the periodic table. Br2 is a pink natural liquid that contains bromine. Yes. You can not find it in its most basic form. Yes. Bromides are inorganic mixes containing bromine, as well as organo-bromine compounds. You might usually find them in soils, salts, air, and seawater.

Hydrobromic acid Formula

HBr acid (aqueous HBr) has the chemical formula HBr and a molar mass of 80.9 g/mol.

The bromine and hydrogen atoms form a single covalent connection in this basic diatomic molecule. Yes. Because of Br’s high electronegativity, we can easily ionize this bond (releasing H+), making HBr a very powerful acid.

Hydrobromic acid Chemical Formula

On a laboratory scale, we can make HBr acid by reacting bromine, sulphur dioxide, and water. We use sulfuric acid as a by-product.

Br2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → H2SO4 + 2 HBr

On the industrial scale, they often prepare HBr acid by reacting dilute sulfuric acid with potassium bromide.

H2SO4 + KBr → KHSO4 + HBr

HBr acid is then diluted or treated to make it commercially available in different concentrations and purities.

What is Hydrogen Bromide?

HBr is the chemical formula for hydrogen bromide, an inorganic molecule. We can classify it as a hydrogen halide because it is a diatomic molecular molecule. Yes. HBr is a colourless gas with an unpleasant odour in its pure form. Yes. HBr is also soluble in water, alcohol, and a variety of other organic solvents.

This chemical is very soluble in water. Yes. When dissolved in water and saturated to around 68.85 percent, it can create hydrobromic acid. Yes. HBr, in both its anhydrous and aqueous forms, is a key reagent in the synthesis of bromide compounds.

In the production of inorganic and organic bromine compounds, HBr is essential. Alkyl bromides are formed when HBr is added to alkenes as a free radical. Yes. Fatty amine derivatives require these alkylating chemicals as precursors.

One can make HBr industrially by mixing hydrogen and bromine at temperatures ranging from 200 to 400°C. Yes. This reaction is usually accelerated by platinum or asbestos. Apart from that, HBr is mostly synthesised in the laboratory by distilling a solution of sodium bromide or potassium bromide with phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid.

When it comes to HBr safety, it is exceedingly corrosive and irritating to inhale. As a result, we should handle it with caution.

What is Hydrobromic Acid?

The powerful acid hydrobromic acid is made by dissolving HBr in water. It is a more powerful acid than hydrochloric acid, but it is less acidic than hydroiodic acid. Yes. This is, nonetheless, one of the most powerful mineral acids known. Yes. This acid has an unpleasant odour and appears as a colorless/faint yellow liquid.

HBr acid has a variety of applications, including the manufacture of inorganic bromides, particularly zinc, calcium, and sodium bromides. It’s also a valuable reagent for synthesising organobromine compounds. Yes. Alkylation processes and the extraction of certain ores can both be catalysed by HBr acid.

When it comes to the production of HBr acid, the reaction between Br2, SO2, and water can be done in the lab. However, the byproducts of this process are HBr acid and sulfuric acid. Yes. However, the most common laboratory procedure is to make anhydrous HBr, which is subsequently dissolved in water.

What is the Difference Between Hydrogen Bromide and Hydrobromic Acid?

The aqueous form of HBr is HBr acid. Yes. However, the main distinction between HBr and HBr acid is that HBr is a molecule in which a hydrogen atom is covalently bound to a bromine atom, whereas HBr acid is a strong acid generated when HBr is dissolved in water.

The differences between HBr and HBr acid are shown in the table below.

Hydrobromic acid vs Hydrogen Bromide

TopicHydrogen BromideHydrobromic acid
DEFINITIONHydrogen bromide is an inorganic compound having the chemical formula HBr.Hydrobromic acid is a saturated aqueous solution of hydrogen bromide.
CATEGORYChemical compound.Acidic solution.
Then, INDUSTRIAL PREPARATIONVia combining hydrogen and bromine at temperatures between 200 and 400 Celsius degrees.Production of anhydrous HBr which is then dissolved in water.
Then, LABORATORY PREPARATIONBy the distillation of a solution of sodium bromide or potassium bromide with phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid.Via the reaction between Br2, SO2, and water.
USESImportant in producing inorganic and organic bromine compounds.Production of inorganic bromides, especially the bromides of zinc, calcium, and sodium.

Hydrobromic acid Synthesis

Preparing HBr acid from phosphorus tribromide(PBr3) and water

  • They place the clean sand in a flask with a funnel. Then, they add a mixture of 25 g of red phosphorus. Similarly, they pour more sand on top of this.
  • In the funnel, add roughly 40 ml of water and 50 ml of bromine to wet the mixture.
  • Then, they attach the exit tube to a U-shaped tube containing moist red phosphorus-coated glass beads.
  • Then, the surface area of these coated beads has increased.) Two wash bottles, each filled with 100 ml and 50 ml of water, are kept in a row.
  • In an ice bath, both bottles are maintained.
  • Then, we add Br progressively to the initial flask (kept in ice to cool).
  • Then, one can remove the ice bath frequently as the reaction progresses to control the gas development.
  • When we add all of the bromine, we slightly warm the reaction flask to drive off any remaining acid vapours. It results in a higher yield.

Hydrobromic acid Chemical Reactions


It occurs when we don’t use peroxide. Yes. However, the bromine gets bonded to the more substituted carbon in the aliens.

Anti-markovnikov rule

It can only be done with HBr and requires the presence of Hydrogen Peroxide.

Hydrogen Peroxide is also an unstable chemical that breaks down into two OH free radicals that attack HBr, resulting in the formation of a Bromine radical.

This attacks the alkene molecule’s least substituted carbon.

A carbon radical is produced when the bromine radical hits the alkene molecule.

As a result of hyper-conjugation, the radical is produced at the more substituted carbon, which is more stable. Bromine binds to the carbon that is less replaced.

Substitution reactions

Bromide ion is easily released by HBr, which can be employed in substitution processes. Yes. Both SN1 and SN2 pathways may be involved in the reaction.

When it comes to metals, their oxides, and hydroxides, it acts similarly to hydrochloric acid.

Hydrobromic acid With metals

HBr acid reacts with metals to give bromide salt and hydrogen gas

2Na + 2HBr → 2NaBr + H2

Hydrobromic acid With metal oxides

With metal oxides, it gives salt and water.

Na2O + 2HBr → 2NaBr + H2O

Hydrobromic acid With metal hydroxides

HBr acid reacts with metal hydroxides to give salt and water

Zn(OH)2 + 2HBr → ZnBr2 + 2H2O

Hydrobromic acid With epoxides

It helps in ring-opening in epoxides forming halohydrins.

With ethers

In a nucleophilic substitution reaction, alkyl ethers are cleaved by strong acids like HBr.

This reaction produces an alcohol product and an alkyl halide. Yes. This mechanism is possible because the bromide ion is also a good nucleophile.

Why is HBr an acid?

To Understand Why HBr Acts as an Acid We must investigate Arrhenius’ famous idea for acid compounds.

According to this idea, a substance is acid if it produces H+ ions when dissolved in water and forms H3O+ ions when coupled with the water molecule.

Examine HBr dissociation in an aqueous solution now.

HBr dissociation in an aqueous

⇒ HBr → H+ + Br-

As on dissolving HBr in an aqueous solution, it dissociates into two ions (H+) and (Br-). Yes. Then, a proton ion(H+) combines with a water molecule and forms H3O+.

⇒ HBr(g) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + (Br-) (aq)

In addition, according to Arrhenius, an acid is a substance that raises the concentration of hydrogen ion (H+) in a solution.

When the HBr compound is dissolved in aqueous solution, one H+ ion is liberated, increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions in the final solution.

As a result, the HBr compound satisfies all of the Arrhenius acid compound’s requirements. Yes. As a result, we can call HBr an Arrhenius acid compound.

Now we’ll look at the Bronsted-Lowry hypothesis, which is also another major acid-base theory.

According to this idea, a molecule becomes an acid when it gives a proton to another species while also forming a conjugate base. Yes. When a compound receives a proton from another species and creates a conjugate acid, it is also classified as a base.

Bronsted-Lowry theory

  • A Bronsted-Lowry acid is also a proton (hydrogen ion) donor.
  • A Bronsted-Lowry base is also a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor.

Let’s see if HBr meets the criteria for being classified as a Bronsted-Lowry acid.

Consider the reaction between HBr and NH3.

When HBr interacts with ammonia, it contributes a proton to NH3, which accepts it and creates Br— conjugate base.

The aforementioned reaction (HBr with NH3) is also depicted as follows:

– Bronsted-Lowry acid is also formed when HBr donates a proton and forms a conjugate base.

Because it takes the proton from HBr and produces a Conjugate acid, NH3 behaves as a Bronsted-Lowry base.

The conjugate acid of the base NH3 is also the ammonium ion (NH4+).

Bromine ion(Br–) is also the conjugate base of the acid HBr.

Is Hydrobromic acid strong or weak?

A strong acid is something that completely dissociates or is 100% ionized in a solution. Yes. Some examples of strong acids – are HCl, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, etc.

Characteristics of strong acid:

They have a high conductivity and are powerful electrolytes.

Their pH level ranges from 1 to 3.

They totally disintegrate and release a huge amount of H+ ions into the solution.

A weak acid is one that cannot fully or partially dissociate in solution. Yes. Weak acids include the following:

CH3COOH, HF, HCN, HNO2, HCOOH, H2CO3, H3PO4, NH4+, etc.

Characteristics of Weak acids:

When contrasted to strong acids, they are weak electrolytes with little conductivity.

Their pH level ranges from 3 to 7.

They partially ionised to form H+ in a solution.

Is HBr a strong acid or a weak acid? In an aqueous solution, HBr is a strong acid because it quickly dissociates, meaning no undissociated components of it remain in the solution; instead, all parts entirely break off and are ionised.

Why Hydrobromic acid easily breaks off and dissociates readily in an aqueous solution?

The binding strength of the H-Br bond is particularly weak due to the wide gap in the orbital sizes of these ions, hence HBr can readily break apart. Yes. However, the orbital size of the H atom is 1s, while the orbital size of the Br atom is 4p.

As a result, the overlapping of 1s and 4p orbitals becomes very small, resulting in weak binding between H-Br in nature. Yes. As a result, the covalent bond in the H-Br atom easily breaks off, allowing it to dissociate in aqueous to release the H+ ion.

Why does Hydrobromic acid act as a strong acid?

As we all know, halogen atoms have a very high electronegativity and a very high energy level, which causes them to be larger than hydrogen. Yes. As a result, the attraction between bromine and hydrogen weakens dramatically.

As a result of its tiny size, hydrogen easily separates from HBr, causing HBr to dissociate in an aqueous solution and entirely split into two ions (H+ and Br—).

What is the conjugate base of Hydrobromic acid?

When the acid gives a proton, the conjugate base is formed, and when the base accepts the proton, the conjugate acid is formed.

When the base compound contains one proton, the conjugate acid is created, and when the acid compound loses one proton, the conjugate base is formed.

The conjugate acid-base pair idea.

  • A very strong acid always forms a weak conjugate base.
  • Then, a very strong base always forms a weak conjugate acid.
  • Then, a very weak acid always forms a strong conjugate base.
  • Similarly, a very weak base always forms a strong conjugate acid.

According to Bronsted-Lowry, HBr is acidic and loses one proton when mixed with water to generate a base known as an acid’s conjugate base (HBr).

As a result, HBr’s conjugate base is Br-.

Is hydrobromic acid Lewis acid or base?

When a compound absorbs a pair of electrons from another Lewis acid molecule and provides a pair of electrons to another Lewis base compound.

⇒ Lewis acid → electron pair acceptor

⇒ Lewis base → electron pair donor

Is HBr Lewis an acid or a base? When HBr reacts with a water molecule, it accepts one lone pair and creates hydronium ion and Br— conjugate base, making it a Lewis acid.

Is hydrobromic acid lewis acid or base?

Because bromine is more electronegative than hydrogen and has three lone around it, it draws more electrons, resulting in a negative charge on the bromine atom and a positive charge on the hydrogen atom.

The lone pair on the water molecule (H2O) attracted the hydrogen atom slightly, but more electrons were repelled by the negative charge of the Bromine atom.

Furthermore, an oxygen-hydrogen coordination bond occurs, and the bromine ion separates as a Bromide ion.

As a result, the entire HBr molecule behaves as a Lewis acid, accepting the lone pair of electrons from H2O and breaking off the Bromide ion in the process.

Hydrobromic acid uses

In the industrial world, HBr acid is used to make a variety of valuable inorganic bromides and organobromine compounds, such as zinc bromide, allyl bromide, and bromoacetic acid. Yes. It’s also a frequent oxidation and catalysis reagent in organic chemistry. Yes. It is a chemical that is effective in the extraction of some metal ores.

  • We use HBr acid to produce bromides of sodium, zinc, and calcium.
  • Hydrobromic used as participants in antiMarkovnikov.
  • Hydrohalogenation of alkenes.
  • In organic reactions, we use HBr as a reagent and as a catalyst.
  • We also use it as a sanitizing or disinfecting agent.

Properties of Hydrobromic acid

HBr is an inorganic chemical that has a pH of 3.01 and appears as a colourless gas with a pungent odour. Yes. HBr acid forms when we dissolve HBr in water. Yes. Finally, some key aspects from this essay on Is HBr an Acid or a Base? Let’s see.

HBr is a kind of acid. Yes. When dissolved in an aqueous solution, it liberates H+ ions, raising the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution and demonstrating its acidic nature.

Lewis acid is HBr. Yes. Because of the capacity of lone pair electrons to receive electrons from another molecule.

The conjugate base of HBr is Br—, which is created when one proton is removed from HBr.

Is Hydrobromic (HBr) an acid that is powerful or weak? When dissolved in an aqueous solution. HBr is not only a strong acid, but it is also one of the strongest mineral acids. Because it completely breaks off, leaving no traces of its parts in the solution, all parts of it completely ionised in solution, and increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions.

HBr gas is extremely corrosive and produces serious burns when it comes into contact with it.

The pKa value of this compound is -9.

It is one of the most powerful mineral acids, even more powerful than HCl.

Hydrobromic acid Boiling point

It has a boiling point of 122 degrees Celsius and a melting point of 11 degrees Celsius.

In the presence of damp air, it rapidly fumes.

It is non-combustible.

Hydrobromic acid Density

We determine the physical properties of HBr in aqueous solution (boiling point, melting point, and density) by the concentration of HBr in the solution. Yes. However, the most frequent form of HBr acid is a “constant boiling” aqueous solution (approximately 48 percent w/w). Yes. With a density of 1.49 g/mL and a boiling point of 122-124 °C, this liquid is colourless or extremely pale yellow. Yes. It has a pungent, bitter odour about it.

Hydrobromic acid Molar mass

One mole of HBr has 6.02 x 1 023 molecules of HBr. However, the molar mass of HBr acid is 80.9 g/mol.

Chemical properties

HBr acid is a powerful mineral acid that outperforms hydrochloric acid. Yes. Bromide salts form when it reacts with bases. Yes. HBr spoils most metals because it is very reactive.

Health hazards/ health effects

HBr is a very corrosive acid that can harm tissue severely. Yes. However, the harsh vapours can irritate and harm the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory system when inhaled. Yes. Contact with the acid in the eyes or on the skin can result in serious burns, and swallowing the acid can result in irreversible tissue damage.

FAQs on Hydrobromic Acid

What’s the chemical formula of hydrobromic acid?

BrH. We can also write it as HBr.

How many atoms and what are they in the HBr acid structure?

2 atom(s) – 1 Hydrogen atom(s) and 1 Bromine atom(s)

How many chemical bonds and what are they in the HBr acid structure?

1 bond(s)

What’s the molecular weight of HBr acid?

80.91194 g/mol

What’s the SMILES string of hydrobromic acid?


What’s the InChI of HBr acid?


What’s the InChIKey of HBr?


Is It Hydrogen Bromide Or Hydrobromic Acid?

The Diatomic Molecule With The Formula Is HBr. It’s a colourless hydrogen halide compound. Yes. We call a solution of HBr acid in water, HBr acid. Yes. In the preparation of bromide compounds, we use both anhydrous and aqueous solutions of Hbr reagents.

Why Is HBr A Strong Acid?

Weak acids only partially dissociate into their ions in water, whereas strong acids completely dissociate. Yes. All of the other acids are ineffective. Yes. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, HBr acid, hydroiodic acid, perchloric acid, and chloric acid are examples of strong acids.

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